General Manager of China Window Certification and Testing Technology Service (Beijing) Co., Ltd.
China Construction Metal Structure Association Former Deputy Chief Engineer Senior Engineer
At present, there are system doors and windows and non-system doors and windows in my country's building doors and windows, and system doors and windows have become an important "keyword". The building doors and windows market is also divided into engineering market and home improvement market, new construction market and existing construction market. System doors and windows and non-system doors and windows are concepts with the characteristics of the times put forward at a specific stage of the development of my country's building doors and windows industry. What is a system door and window, the main attribute of building doors and windows is its product attribute or engineering attribute, and what is the future development trend? This article attempts to analyze from a specific perspective.
1. Non-system doors and windows
For a long time, the main feature of the development of my country's building door and window industry is "project-centered". The operation and management activities of most door and window enterprises are carried out around specific engineering projects. Maintenance and so on are closely related to specific projects. In this case, the door and window materials are used based on the principle of compatibility and interchangeability, and are temporarily combined according to certain technical conditions and rules, and then manufactured and installed according to the corresponding process under specific conditions (specific factory environment and installation site conditions). There is no opportunity for repeated inspection, testing and optimization, so it is difficult to guarantee the function, performance and quality of doors and windows, as well as the stability of quality (the entry "stability" is provided by the industry encyclopedia). At present, such doors and windows are generally referred to as non-system doors and windows (combined doors and windows, compatible doors and windows or engineered doors and windows). Such doors and windows mainly have the following characteristics:
1) There is no pre-designed stable function, performance and quality, and there is uncertainty.
Since the materials of this type of doors and windows are temporarily combined, and they are manufactured in an uncertain environment (factory, equipment, manufacturing process, and quality management system are uncertain), the performance and quality of such doors and windows can only wait until the doors and windows. After the manufacture is completed, it is determined by inspection and testing, which is uncertain. In practice, the door and window production mode of "one finger and two picks" produced by "project-centered" or "customer-centered" will inevitably lead to the weakening of the product attributes of doors and windows. Door and window enterprises are not "product-centered", not Design, manufacture, install and service around improving product performance and quality, but "obey" the non-professional will and requirements of customers.
2) There is no process of application environment research, product positioning, theoretical analysis, design, material selection, trial production, inspection and testing, improvement and optimization, and the cost performance is not high.
Without the repetition of the above process, it is impossible to know how well the materials are matched, whether the manufacturing process and quality assurance system meet the requirements, whether the overall cost-effectiveness is optimal, and whether there are aspects that need to be improved and optimized.
3) There is no sustainable and stable performance and quality assurance.
The historical experience of industrialized mass production shows that changes in the software and hardware environment of product manufacturing will definitely bring about changes in product performance and quality. It is precisely because of the temporary combination of materials of this type of doors and windows, the temporary determination of production sites and processes, the poor pertinence of the quality assurance system, and the lack of a solidified hardware and software environment, that this type of door and window products cannot achieve stable performance and quality.
4) The performance and quality are difficult to reproduce, and the traceability and maintainability are not good.
In the design scheme of such door and window products, the material selection is based on the principle of compatibility and availability, so it is not fixed; its technical system (manufacturing process, inspection and testing methods, equipment accuracy, processing parameters) is not unique, so It is quite difficult to reproduce product performance and quality. Especially when the doors and windows have performance and quality problems and need to be maintained and repaired, due to incomplete and uncertain data and missing data, there will be great problems in maintenance and repair, and traceability and maintainability are not good.
5) The degree of productization, industrialization, systemization and informatization is not high, and the overall performance is not good.
Doors and windows should be composed of many materials, based on a definite structure, combined according to specific technical rules, a systematic product with stable and definite functions, performance and quality, it is an organic whole, not without stable materials Configuration, there is no definite software and hardware manufacturing environment, and it is temporarily combined to meet a certain engineering need.
Doors and windows should be an integral product. Like automobile products, it is an organic whole composed of many materials. When people buy a car of a certain brand, what they buy is the car as a whole product, rather than when people need to buy a car, the car manufacturer buys materials such as tires, lighting systems, audio, engine and chassis from the market Temporarily assembled with components. For the temporarily assembled car, whether the material matching is optimal, whether the engine matches other systems, whether there is a "big horse-drawn car" phenomenon, and the overall performance, these are all uncertain issues. Since this kind of car has not undergone repeated cycles of design, manufacture, road test, proving ground inspection and overall optimization and improvement, it is of course not guaranteed to meet its performance and quality requirements such as safety, economy and comfort.
2. System doors and windows
The development history of my country's building door and window industry shows that the degree of productization, industrialization, systematization and informatization of building doors and windows is not high, the overall performance is not good, and the stability is not ideal. The fundamental reason is that the product attributes of building doors and windows are not obvious, and they are not completely designed, manufactured, installed, used and maintained as products.
With the development of my country's reform and opening up, my country's building doors and windows market is also quietly changing. In the process of communication and cooperation with foreign advanced door and window enterprises, the technical system and business model of building doors and windows are also undergoing important changes, and the product attributes of doors and windows are more and more reflected. The business model and technical system of doors and windows "centered on engineering projects" are also changing.
It is precisely because there are non-integrated doors and windows with strong engineering attributes, weak product attributes, and low degree of systematization in the development process of my country's building doors and windows industry, which are currently called non-system doors and windows (combined doors and windows, compatible doors and windows or engineered doors and windows), Only the doors and windows with different characteristics are called system doors and windows.
The system doors and windows mainly have the following characteristics:
1) Centered on the product, it has been pre-designed with stable and clear function, performance and quality.
One of the most important features of system doors and windows is that they are pre-designed. "Focusing on products", carrying out specialized target positioning, design and manufacturing is an important stage in the whole life cycle of system doors and windows.
At the preset time, the designer adopts qualitative and quantitative (experience-based technical analysis and decision-making, theoretical Analysis, structural calculation, thermal calculation, inspection and testing) analysis methods, through reasonable material selection and configuration, structural optimization, improvement of manufacturing process and quality assurance system, repeated trial production, overall performance optimization, etc., finally determine the technical system of the system doors and windows (including manufacturing process, quality management system, installation process and use and maintenance guidelines, etc.).
Therefore, we can say that system doors and windows are doors and windows that can theoretically and practically ensure that doors and windows have preset functions, performance and quality. The difference with non-system doors and windows is that before mass production, system doors and windows have clear function, performance and quality goals, and also have limited scope of application.
2) After optimization, it has a high cost performance.
The overall performance, economic and technical indicators, structure and materials of the system doors and windows have been repeatedly optimized to achieve high cost performance. However, it needs to be clear that, due to the selections made when determining the function, performance, quality and scope of application of the system doors and windows, it cannot be simply considered that the system doors and windows are the doors and windows with the best performance.
3) After third-party certification, product attributes are stronger than engineering attributes, and product quality is guaranteed.
System doors and windows are industrialized products, which is the essence of system doors and windows. The experience of the development of the door and window industry in the international advanced countries shows that the development of door and window product quality certification is the only way for the development of system doors and windows.
The national quality infrastructure includes metrology, standards, certification and accreditation, and inspection and testing. This is a concept put forward by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Organization for Standardization on the basis of summarizing more than 100 years of practical experience in the field of quality. Its main function is to make production and operation services based and measurable, to ensure product quality and safety, to protect the interests of consumers, to promote international mutual recognition and foreign trade, and to provide support for national economic and social development. Therefore, to promote the high-quality development of the building doors and windows industry, we must pay attention to the national quality infrastructure. Carrying out the third-party certification of building doors and windows is a concrete manifestation of the emphasis on national quality infrastructure.
4) After market inspection, the system doors and windows have high brand awareness and reputation, and are branded doors and windows.
The development of the world's door and window industry shows that the system door and window brand has a high popularity and reputation, and the system door and window should be branded doors and windows. In the development process of my country's building door and window industry, due to the weak brand awareness of doors and windows, a door and window brand with strong global influence has not yet been formed.
The historical experience of the development of the international building doors and windows industry shows that the branding of doors and windows is the development trend, and in my country, the system doors and windows have the advantage of branding.
3. The main difference
To sum up, the main differences between system doors and windows and non-system doors and windows are shown in the following table.
Second, the development of system doors and windows
If we regard doors and windows as an integrated product of industrial production, all doors and windows will go through the whole life cycle process of the aforementioned system doors and windows (such as the complete process of target positioning, design, manufacture, certification, installation, use and maintenance), so there is no There are system doors and windows and non-system doors and windows.
In foreign countries, especially in Europe, America, Japan, Australia and other countries, doors and windows are all system doors and windows. Such as Germany's Schüco, Hydro, Hawke, Italy's Aluq and Erjiqi, Japan's YKK and other doors and windows are designed, manufactured, inspected, certified and used according to the concept of system doors and windows, and they have world influence. famous brand of doors and windows.
With the development of my country's building door and window industry, China's building system doors and windows have also developed rapidly, and a number of powerful system door and window brands have emerged. Such as Beiluo and Xiluo in Guangdong, Ledao and Canon in Shenyang, Mulan Window in Beijing, and Moser in Hebei.
The development of my country's building door and window industry has experienced the process of introduction, digestion, absorption and re-innovation, and has achieved brilliant development achievements in personnel training, technological innovation, management and engineering practice. In the next few years, China's building doors and windows industry will continue to maintain a steady growth trend. In the future development process, building door and window technology will advocate energy saving and environmental protection and pursue green civilization, meet the individual needs of users, improve product quality and performance, reflect the main style of the building and provide healthy and comfortable space as the main features, new materials for building doors and windows, Key cutting-edge technologies such as new technologies and new equipment will make greater breakthroughs, and China's building door and window industry and related industries will reach the international advanced level in major technical fields.
3. The quality of system doors and windows
In order to meet people's needs for a better life, system doors and windows should pursue better quality. The quality of a product consists of two qualities: functional quality and perceptual quality.
(1) What is the quality of functionality? It solves practical problems. Building doors and windows can have a series of functions such as "shielding from wind and rain, sound insulation (the entry "sound insulation" is provided by the industry encyclopedia), noise prevention, thermal insulation (the entry "heat insulation" is provided by the industry encyclopedia), and ventilation and lighting". The problem is satisfied.
(2) Perceptual quality, that is, aesthetics. We use doors and windows, in addition to the hope that doors and windows can solve functional problems and meet performance requirements, there are also user experience requirements, which can also be said to be "aesthetic requirements".
Generally speaking, functional quality is tangible, relatively stable, fixed and limited, while perceptual quality is intangible and varies from person to person (because user experience may vary). The product has a beautiful perceptual quality (the perfect combination of technology and art, the product has a brand, cultural heritage, beautiful appearance, ergonomic principles, etc.), the user will have the happiness of "pleasant to the eyes, happy and relaxed, infinite happiness" Feeling, will also have more desire to buy and use.
Therefore, the combination of practicality and aesthetics is the whole quality of a product. But many people don't realize it. Just like doors and windows, from "windows and rains, sound insulation and noise prevention, thermal insulation, ventilation and lighting" to "doors and windows with a little design", and then to "windows and windows with a little good-looking", in the process of this change , it is not the functional quality that is improved, but the perceptual quality. The increase in product price and the doubling of the added value of the product do not mean that the function has changed, but the user experience has changed. Some of us entrepreneurs do not have a good grasp of the understanding and direction of product upgrading, insist on functionality, do not understand aesthetics, and are reluctant to increase costs on perceptual quality. The result is that your product has been replaced, but not upgraded. Very sorry!
4. System door and window standards and certification
1. Standard level
The standard level of my country's building doors and windows industry has been continuously improved, the inspection and testing capabilities have been continuously enhanced, and the national quality infrastructure has been rapidly developed. The performance and quality of my country's building doors and windows will reach the international advanced level.
Looking at the development history of my country's building doors and windows industry, for a long time in the past, there is a big gap between the research and development capabilities of my country's system doors and windows compared with foreign advanced levels. However, in the past 10 years, due to the fact that my country has the world's largest door and window market and has accumulated a lot of engineering practice experience, the research and development capabilities of my country's system doors and windows have been rapidly improved. Great results. Especially since 2014, practitioners in my country's building door and window industry have paid more attention to the research and development, promotion and application of system doors and windows theoretically and ideologically, and developed door and window systems (the overall scheme and technical system of system doors and windows) with a more rigorous scientific attitude. And put forward systematic research ideas and technical routes for door and window systems. After a lot of investigation, research and scientific experiments, the "Technical Guidelines for Doors and Windows in Building Systems" (referred to as "Guidelines") was launched, which was published in February 2017. The launch of the "Guidelines" marks a major breakthrough in the research and development capabilities of my country's building door and window systems, which is of great significance as a milestone.
2. System door and window certification
In Europe, all door and window products must obtain CE certification. In my country, the development of quality certification for building doors and windows is an objective requirement for the high-quality development of the building doors and windows industry in the new era.
1) In the past, the administrative management in the construction field was strong (the production license system and the construction enterprise qualification management system were implemented), the marketization was relatively insufficient, and the quality certification of door and window products had not been developed! Under the background, the degree of marketization is getting higher and higher, making product quality certification an inevitable choice for the development of the industry. On June 28, 2018, Premier Li Keqiang made it clear in his speech at the national teleconference on deepening the reform of "delegating power, delegating power, delegating power and improving services" and transforming government functions, "It is necessary to deepen the reform of the production license system for industrial products, comprehensively clean up all kinds of licenses, and speed up the transformation of industrial product production licenses. Certification changes; the current product certification system should also be standardized and improved, in line with international practices."
2) With the reduction of government supervision and the improvement of marketization, enterprises in the construction field need more credible and authoritative third-party institutions to provide certification services.
3) There is a big gap between the quality certification of building doors and windows in my country and the advanced level of foreign countries (European Union, the United States, Australia, Japan, etc.). At present, domestic certification bodies have completed the construction of the quality certification system for building doors and windows through exchanges and cooperation with foreign certification bodies, and have comprehensively carried out quality certification services for building doors and windows and related products.
4) Compared with the previous building doors and windows certification system, the current building doors and windows certification system is more complete, and the certification procedures are more scientific and reasonable. The current quality certification system for door and window products, in addition to focusing on more performance of door and window products (a total of 23 performance items, 6 items of safety, 3 items of energy saving, 12 items of applicability, and 1 item of durability.), also includes the quality of the enterprise. Assurance system audits. The comparison is shown in the following table:
5. Future trends
At present, my country's economic development has entered a new era, and high-quality development is an inevitable requirement of the new era of economic development. "High quality" is also the most important keyword in the new era. The building door and window industry must adapt to the requirements of the new era of economic development, strive to improve the quality of products and services, consolidate the foundation for ensuring high-quality development, improve quality assurance capabilities, and open a new era of high-quality development of the building door and window industry.
China is the number one producer and user of building doors and windows. The fundamental difference between a big country and a strong country lies in quality. In this sense, the new era is the era of quality. The building door and window industry is a broad manufacturing industry, and it must also adapt to the requirements of the new era and unswervingly promote the transformation from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power.
As an industrialized product, building doors and windows have the trend of systemization, productization, informatization and intelligence. We have reason to believe that with the development and popularization of system doors and windows, the technical ability and level of my country's door and window industry will be rapidly improved, and the overall level of my country's door and window industry will also be comprehensively improved. When the popularity of "system doors and windows" reaches a certain level, people will not talk too much about "system doors and windows" (system doors and windows), and there will be no difference between system doors and windows and non-system doors and windows. Subversion, but the inevitable result of the development of doors and windows as industrialized products.
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